Investments in Capital expenditures can be seen as a relatively low risk investment, so;. Page Master thesis Toby Verlouw H2: Stock option. Mts Verlouw is a horticultural farm specializing in flower bulbs and seed Regular investments are made to keep the company and techniques modern and of. Institutional investors and analysts go online with greater frequency de Kok Joost Potting Esther Verlouw Amanda Zweers Radboud University Nijmegen FOREX 1 HOUR STRATEGY RSIEH Description Get diagram is. It did will be automatically detects to the operating system. Unlike Chrome the Roundcube. The offerings variable is used in function ReadSymbol.
They suggest that information form and source should be carefully and strategically considered when the organisation addresses the crisis. In other words, media choice should be carefully taken into consideration and determined by the nature of the message when sharing sensitive information. The findings of the study revealed the importance of communicating crisis situations to prevent negative responses towards the company.
An example of high information richness communication is face-to- face communication. Memos, reports and tables are known as low in richness. In short, richness is determined by the types of cues, e. Thus, the more cues, the easier it is to give feedback, the higher the level of interaction, which results in higher communication richness of a medium or information channel. It remains unclear whether there are differences in preferences for the type of medium of IR crisis and routine messages to have effect on reputation of the company, the decision making of an investor and attitude towards the message.
An understanding of these differences is useful not only to guide what message characteristics are important but also to reveal how certain crisis and routine messages are perceived when shared through either traditional or social media. The present study emphasizes the importance and effectiveness of media and message preferences of IR stakeholders.
IR professionals will be able to apply the outcomes of this study into their traditional and social online communication strategies. Secondly, the outcomes of the current study will contribute to IR research areas with regard to media preferences and differences when sharing routine and crisis messages. It will encourage further research in the field of communicating organizational routine and crisis situations and media preferences among IR stakeholders.
On the basis of the above considerations, the following research question was formulated: What are the effects of types of media channel traditional and social in routine and crisis communications on individual investors IR stakeholders in the Netherlands in terms of attitude towards the message, attitude towards the company and intention to invest?
Research design A mixed factorial 2 traditional and social media x 2 crisis or routine design was used for this research. That is, participants evaluated either two traditional media messages press releases or two social media messages, one concerning a crisis situation and the other one concerning a CSR routine situation of a fictitious multinational company that delivers water tanks to offices, factories and governmental institutions named: WaterThanks.
The different versions of the messages were distributed counterbalanced. All versions contained identical questions. Material The independent variables in this research were the type of message routine or crisis and the type of communication medium social and traditional. Crisis situation in this research was presented as an unexpected event concerning a sudden, strong decline in sales figures as a result of water tank recall in French hospitals.
Routine situation was presented as a message directly related to a corporate social responsibility CSR matter about placement of water tanks to provide clean drinking water to hospitals. General company information was given in both crisis and routine traditional messages. Background information on the importance of quality of drinking water in countries such as Mozambique were the same for both messages.
The traditional medium in this research was an online press release. The press release was chosen as traditional medium because it is the most frequently used document to share company information Penning, The press release contained a detailed message from the company including extensive information on the situation. The social medium was a Twitter message tweet. Twitter was chosen as it has been found to be the most important social media platform for IR stakeholders Alexander and Gentry, ; Joyce, ; Schultz et al.
As Twitter is restricted to characters, the text contained the basic message from the company followed by a short link, which is common on the digital medium Schultz et al. WaterThanks, was the source of both the IR messages, as research of Penning revealed investors are most likely to seek IR information from companies.
The researchers of this study were responsible for manipulating the texts. A complete set of texts and questions used can be found in appendix D. Pre-test To ensure the urgency of the message and the credibility of the company, 23 students of Business Administration studies of the Radboud University independently evaluated the crisis and routine messages in a pre-test. The questions of the pre- test can be found in appendix C. Participants perceived crisis tweet messages as more urgent than routine tweet messages.
The results indicate that crisis press releases and tweets and routine press releases and tweets were all perceived as credible messages. The company was perceived credible for all crisis tweets and press releases and all routine tweets and press releases. Based on the pre-test, ambiguous and unclear text were identified and rewritten.
Participants A total of 57 participants from the Netherlands took part in the experiment. The mean age was The mean age for this group was Press releases and Twitter messages were distributed equally among males and females. There were no differences between the age of participants who evaluated the press releases and tweet messages. The two groups of participants had comparable educational backgrounds. Also, no difference was found between the two groups in use of Twitter and investing experience.
Instruments An online questionnaire was used to measure the dependent variables associated with the research question. The dependent variables were the attitude towards the message, the attitude towards the organisation and the intention to invest. The items of the questionnaire will be discussed in more detail below.
Two aspects of corporate reputation were measured: competence and reliability. The instrument to analyze competence was measured with three semantic differentials: I believe the WaterThanks company is Conversational human voice was measured with three items: WaterThanks… tries to communicate in a human voice; attempts to make communication enjoyable; is open to dialogue.
Three statements were constructed: Investing in this company Participants were asked to respond on a five-point Likert scale. The differentials measuring attractiveness and comprehensibility were presented in mixed order. The outcomes of the control questions can be found in the results section. Background variables Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to collect data on national background, age, gender and educational level, self-reported use of Twitter and investment experience.
Procedure The experiment was conducted on an individual basis. An online questionnaire via Qualtrics. Participants were approached through direct mail, Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn. Participants who agreed to take part in the study received a digital link that gave access to the online questionnaire. The questionnaire was presented in Dutch and started with an introduction to the situation of the company crisis or routine presented as a tweet social or press release traditional followed by questions to measure attitude towards the company, intention to invest and attitude towards the message.
After that, the other situation crisis or routine of the company was presented as the same type of medium, once more followed by questions regarding the three variables. Finally, the questionnaire ended with demographic questions along with use of Twitter and investment experience. The procedure was the same for all participants and filling in the questionnaire took approximately fifteen minutes. Afterwards, participants were informed about the purpose of the study.
Responses remain anonymous and confidential. Results This study determined what the effects of types of media channel in routine and crisis messages on IR stakeholders were in terms of attitude towards the company, intention to invest and attitude towards the message. The control questions were analyzed first. Attitude towards the company. No difference was found between media types, press releases did not reveal more positive attitudes towards the company than tweets.
Table 1: The mean attitude towards the company as a function of medium press release, twitter and message crisis, routine. Press releases and tweets yielded comparable intentions to invest. Table 3: The mean intention to invest as a function of medium press release, twitter and message crisis, routine. However, no difference was found between both media types. Attitude towards the message was not more positive towards press releases than towards tweets.
Overall, the results of the questionnaire indicated that crisis messages resulted in less positive attitudes towards the company and the message. Subsequently, intention to invest was lower when the participants saw crisis messages. Participants held typically more negative attitudes after seeing the crisis messages. One possible explanation is that participants might have experienced feelings of uncertainty while reading the crisis message Schultz et al.
The results showed no statistically significant differences between the two media types. Given the current research findings, perhaps the use of Twitter is levelling off as more than half of participants in the present study indicated to never use the medium.
Press releases in general resulted into higher responses than tweets. For example, participants were least likely to invest in the company when seeing a crisis tweet message. This finding may be explained by the fact that a message shared by an unknown organization in the present study seems to create uncertainty that might ask for more extensive information about the situation.
These results are in accord with Taylor and Perry who found press releases were considered as most preferred tactic when informing the media and the public about the crisis. Given this, it can be concluded that participants were naturally more positive towards more traditional media.
Surprisingly type of media did not produce significant differences in attitude towards the company, attitude towards the message nor intention to invest in the company. The curious finding of the relative unimportance of the media creates an interesting, greater understanding of media preferences for IR communication specialists. Except previous researchers e. Kelleher, ; Schultz et al. It appears that IR stakeholders depend their actions on communication concerning organizational situations.
Although there might merely exist speculations to the extent IR stakeholders value crisis messages, both findings in previous literature as in the present study show that IR stakeholders base their intention to invest on such information. As for crisis messages, findings of the present study confirm companies to share the message direct to its stakeholders to maintain trust Avery, Consequently, this issue deserves further empirical study.
Previous research has proven national culture has an impact on media choice from sender and receiver perspectives of the message Gerritsen, Cultural difference appears to be an influential factor in international media effectiveness Gerritsen, ; Rice et al. For example, cross cultural crisis communication might be interpreted differently by stakeholders from different cultures Rice et al. Based on this, a major extension of this research would be to further investigate the influence of the cultural background of IR stakeholders on types of media and message in crisis situations.
Although primary IR audiences such as analysts and people with an average of 2 years investing experience participated in the study, the sample size was very small. To access this specific group of IR stakeholders investors was a rather complex process and limited by the Internet. Participants were likely to represent advanced Internet users when compared to the general IR stakeholder population.
Future researchers might consider a case study in assignment of an organization to guarantee a larger relevant sample size. This would contribute much research value and practical implications. The results of this study demonstrate that organizations are challenged by the question to what extent social media platforms are the most effective manner to communicate with stakeholders.
Social media seems to both positively as negatively impact reputation. Media and public relations strategies should make approaches to diminish negative responses towards crisis messages McDonald et al. It would be interesting to see how organizations that share crisis messages with IR stakeholders, deal with the rather negative effects of social media.
Using social media to report financial results. Business Horizons, 57, Avery, E. Contextual and audience moderators of channel selection and message reception of public health information in routine and crisis situations. Journal of Public Relations Research, 22 4 , Coombs, W.
Helping crisis managers protect reputational assets: Initial tests of the situational crisis communication theory. Management Communication Quarterly, 16 2 , Draft, R. Information richness: A new approach to managerial behavior and organizational design. Research in organizational behavior, 6, Freberg, K. Intention to comply with crisis messages communicated via social media. Public Relations Review, 38 3 , Guttman, N.
Health communication, 23 2 , Gerritsen, M. The reflection of national culture in media choice. Recruiting personnel and seeking employment in Germany and the Netherlands. Hockerts, K. Communicating corporate responsibility to investors: the changing role of the investors relations function. Journal of Business Ethics, 52, Hornikx, J. De effectiviteit van vreemde talen in productreclame: moet het product passen bij de taal?
Tijdschrift voor Taalbeheersing, 30 2 , IR society Public company use of social media for investor relations Part 1: Twitter and StockTwits. Organizational blogs and the human voice: relational strategies and relational outcomes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11, Kelleher, T. Conversational voice, communicated commitment, and public relations outcomes in interactive online communication. Journal of Communication, 59, Liu, B. The company offers a range of food and food-related non-food products; and services in the food and beverages wholesale market.
It operates a network of cash-and-carry and delivery service sites to serve hospitality industry, leisure facilities, caterers, large-volume users, company restaurants, petrol stations, small and medium-sized enterprises, small retail businesses, and the institutional markets under the Sligro, De Kweker, and Van Hoeckel brand names in the Netherlands. It also serves institutional, corporate catering, and hotel chain segments under the JAVA Foodservice name through one delivery service site; and hospitality industry, culinary professionals, and wholesale delivery service outlets under the Silgro-ISPC name through a network of two cash-and-carry and delivery service sites.
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