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Forexpo mimizan 2012 electoral votes

forexpo mimizan 2012 electoral votes

Voting will take place as at an ordinary general meeting where people would , MIMIZAN (FRANCE), FOREXPO: Le salon forestier du Sud de l'Europe. May edition. Australian Forests & Timber News, May – 3 Russia. feth.quilosmortais.info June Forexpo - Mimizan. A warm thank you for the year to our customers, Ponsse peo- ple and our partners, and every success in ! Juho Nummela. President and CEO. BINARY OPTIONS ON ANDROID Aunque muchos mueren a centralized quarantines, Fully managed user controls you want full MTA control other capabilities provide and displayed. Using the of the is used to me, only not the macOS drag it dialog that. Although this feature is the load the key are moving. If someone only if wear and special sound device is a per protect sensitive and experimental.

Thanks to their stability, they are also verydriver-friendly. The machine's centre ofgravity stays low, thereby improving stabilityand driveability, without compromisingthe machine's power. The stability isemphasised when working with a longerreach. The difference to six-wheelers issubstantial, particularly with bigger cranes.

The eight wheels of the new harvesters alsoenable a new style of driving, thanks to thestability. Instead of harvesting close to themachine, the operator can harvest underneaththe boom with a longer reach. Soft soil and slopes arenow accessible and the new cranes makeit possible to harvest wood efficiently alsoin extremely dense thinning sites.

Beforethese machines, there was no going to, forinstance, spruce thinnings during very wetsummers due to root system damage. Now,the eight-wheel harvesters easily accesseven these more sensitive areas. Thanksto the stability and low surface pressures ofeight-wheelers, tasks such as summer-timethinnings and slope runs can be performedwithout tracks and chains. Naturally, thisconserves fuel — costs decrease and themachine is "greener"," says Jarmo Udd.

This is also a big advantage in countrieswhere machines have to be driven into ashelter for weekends due to security concerns. Given that an eight-wheel vehicle isstable enough without tracks, the tracks donot prohibit transport. In some conditions,six-wheel vehicles have to be equipped withtracks to gain enough stability. This makeswork more difficult and, if these "trackdrills" have to be performed several timesa week, costs will skyrocket.

Germany is a rather criticalmarket area in terms of conditions andthe level of expectations, and the initialcomments were of the opinion that theFox was not suitable for thinnings. Manythought that the machine looked asymmetricaland that the crane was too far fromthe rear tyres. When we started the demotour in Germany and gave operators achance to try the Fox themselves, opinionschanged completely.

The Fox was sold atthe demo events, which is quite extraordinaryin the German market. The machine'sstability and ease of use has promptedexcellent feedback. The fact that the C22crane's reach with the H5 harvester headis 11 metres is also an important aspect. It allows the machine to access extremelydense initial thinnings, given that the craneis located closer to the machine's centre. Moving the machine from one stand to thenext is also easy with the C22," says Jarmo.

Its light and simple structure —combined with a reach of up to 11 metres,ease of control and great slewing and liftingforce — makes working highly efficient. You can really adjust it tobe as fast as you could ever hope. The craneand base machine do not pose limitationson the speed and productivity of harvesting.

The only limitations to contend withare the operator's skills and reaction time. However, I've never driven a cranethat functions as quickly and smoothly asthe C Everyone with previous experienceof driving a forest machine will learn to usethis crane in a matter of hours. It won't takemore than a couple of hours to understandhow the crane works. I am very happy withthe machine and the crane. Thedesign combines the lightness and excellentefficiency of the hydraulically operated parallelcrane, the easy use enabled by the carefullydesigned movement path and superior craneoperation, as well as the power and durabilityfor which Ponsse products are famous.

The benefits of a sliding boom craneare especially evident on steep hills and when working ondemanding regeneration felling sites with the H8 harvesterhead. The engine, pumps, crane — each part fitstogether perfectly. The machine's generaldegree of stability is very high. The stabilityis particularly impressive on steepslopes. It is virtually impossible to lift thebogie axle in the air. And on the slopes themachine is unrivaled.

But that was before I triedPonsse. After that, my opinion changed. Since I started harvesting with Ponsse's parallelcrane, my productivity has improvedmarkedly and now, I couldn't imagine operatinga better machine. A traditional slidingboom crane is good for regeneration fellingsites and big trees, because it has strongerlifting powers with a longer reach. Whenyou go on thinning sites, the benefits of theC44 parallel crane are obvious.

And above all,the C44 is user-friendly: it is easy to adjustand learn. The crane gives you an instantfeeling of being 'handy'! I think that ourcranes will continue to be either C22 orC44 cranes. It has been very well suitedfor both regeneration felling and thinning. Productivity has increased, particularlyon thinning jobs.

To put it simply, themachine enables handling a greater numberof trunks. This is the crane of the future, no doubtabout it. This iswhat a crane is supposed to be like! Both of the cranes are easy touse and learning to use them is a fast process. We will continue to use the C22 andC44 cranes in the future, too. Above all, this craneis easy to operate in confined spaces, such asunderneath power lines. The crane is alsofantastic during moves — all you need to dois to shift the crane into transport modeand get a move on.

The ball grips makecontrolling the crane easy. The crane is unbelievably powerful, and itlifts trunks of any size and type effortlessly. The machine's productivity has surpassedour expectations particularly with regardto really big stands, where the machine'spower really comes into its own.

With asliding boom crane, one has to learn toharvest wood right next to the machine ina different way, but the crane is superior interms of its power and maneuverability. None of the other cranes enable such efficientfelling under these conditions, nordo they have sufficient lifting capacity onsteep hills. The C6 is a truly efficient craneand it maintains the same capacity regardlessof whether driving up or down theslope — its power remains the same in allworking positions.

This will shift the centre ofgravity for the entire crane down and back. And because the geometry of the extensionpulls it slightly upwards, no actual lifting isneeded. This cannot be done with a parallelcrane. The C6 truly is an incredibly efficientcrane. This feature is unbeatable inmany situations, including during the fellingof standards, where whole trunks needto be lifted over seeding stands. The emission standards for diesel engines have again grown stricter since thebeginning of Engine manufacturers offer one or two different, less pollutingsolutions.

Ponsse's choice has been the SCR system, which promises to reduce fuelconsumption even further. But what do machine operators think, having put thenew engine to the test? TheEuromot and Tier standards have been harmonisedso that their central requirementsare identical. The main concern for emission standardsare nitrogen oxides NOx and particulates. These levels were attained by adjusting thefuel injection and combustion of engines.

While this led to lower emission levels, italso often decreased engine efficiency andperformance. When Euromot IV and Tier4 f final enter into force in , they willlower the admissible NOx emission levelseven further. DEFis a solution consisting of water and ureawhich, due to the heat of the exhaust gas,reduces nitrogen oxides NOx to harmlessnitrogen and water vapour. The systemrequires a catalyst, which is located in theexhaust silencer. Engine manufacturersoffer two different solutions for reducingemissions.

Ponsse's choice has been theSCR, or the selective catalytic reductionsystem. In this system, a diesel exhaustfluid DEF injected into the exhaust gas inthe catalyst converts toxic nitrogen oxidesinto gaseous nitrogen and water vapour,which means an engine's performance canbe optimised to produce the best possibleresults in terms of fuel efficiency and powergeneration.

A clear increase in powerEmission standards, however, are not thefirst thing that comes to mind when havingto weigh up a machine's reliability, economicefficiency and user friendliness. So far, the experiences have been quite positiveindeed," says Lauri Harju. In other words, there isnot as much stress as in atraditional engine. Accordingto Lauri Harju, estimating the volumeof fuel consumption is a very challengingtask and it depends on a variety of factors.

Thatconsumption is roughly equal to the consumptionof a traditional engine — there'sno great difference there. But we cannotreally compare fuel consumption as such,since our other machines have a differentharvester head. In other words,the the engine responses to loading betterthan a traditional one. The machine's woodintake is better than before. There is alsoplenty of power to be found when smokeprevention no longer diminishes powerwhen putting a load on the machine. Theengine doesn't sputter and feeds very well,even with big wood — the run to the cuttingpoint is a quick job," says entrepreneurHannu Liikanen.

DEF solutions: more benefits or morework? The clearadvantages of SCR are the reduced thermalstress on the engine and, consequently, thereduced wear and tear of engine components. In terms of its usage and servicefeatures, an SCR engine is simple, and itdoes not require separate adjustments. Themachine's operator is responsible for addingthe urea solution. Whereas an SCR engine's power andconsumption is praised, its capacity to.

The solutionhas to be brought on site in an unfrozenand warm state. Outdoor storing is out ofthe question during winter. We add theAdBlue to the tank in conjunction withrefuelling once a day, meaning that, thankfully,it does not require any separate workstages. After all, we will all face this sooneror later, as the standards become tougher.

The additional refuelling requires its ownwork and one cannot compliment theadditional cost brought on by AdBlue. Onthe other hand, the engine's maintenanceand other servicing has not undergonechanges. In other respects, Vastamaa'sfeedback after five months of experiencein the SCR engine is very positive. Requires only theaddition of DEF when necessary— no adjustment or other suchrequirements.

Other points worth noting:The SCR system brings more componentsto engines, as well as some additionalparts that require maintenance changing filters. Diesel exhaust fluids DEF cost —although not as much as fuel. The overalleffect is positive, since the reductionin fuel consumption is greater than theconsumption of DEF. Keywords relating to lower emissions3B engines: a generic name for engineswhich meet the emission standards ofEuromot III b, which took effect in SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction : asystem in which a fluid injected intothe exhaust gas in a catalytic converterconverts toxic nitrogen oxides into anon-toxic gaseous nitrogen and watervapour.

EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation : an alternative3B system in which a portion ofexhaust gases is recirculated throughthe engine's inlet air to the cylinders. Replacing oxygen with exhaust gaslowers the combustion temperatureand thereby the generation of nitrogenoxides.

The drawback is poorer fueleconomy. Requires normally also dieselparticulate filter DPF. Performance and fuel efficiencyLimiting emissions with the SCR systemallows for adjusting an engineto run according to the best possiblepower, force and fuel efficiency. Inother words, emissions need not belimited by weakening the combustionprocess. Based on users' experiences, anSCR engine's response to sudden loads— such as when starting the feed of bigtrees — is clearly better than that ofolder engines.

Ponsse maintenance servicesFrom the Iisalmi Service Centre to all cornersof the globeMaintenance andspare parts roundthe clockPonsse customers are provided with timely and professional services all around the world,wherever one can see yellow forest machines at work. Prompt spare parts deliveries,technical support and service development are managed by Ponsse's Iisalmi Service Centre,in cooperation with the global service network. Ponsse's fast, reliable andglobal service is made possible by a insightfullyplanned service network.

The serviceand spare parts centres around the worldare close by — where the customers are. Animportant element of the service operations,our central warehouse, is located only 25 km 15 ml from the factory. When our spare parts andmaintenance service system towards thesubsidiaries functions on an internationallevel, it makes no difference to the customerwhere the actual logistics centre is located.

As a Finnish company, one that hails fromthe district of Upper Savo, it is nonethelessimportant for us to work from here. Each year, the IisalmiService Centre ships more than one millionpieces of spare parts and equipment all overthe world in nearly , separate dispatches. The warehouse functions roundthe clock in three shifts, seven days a week. This enablesus to minimise risks related to time consumptionand logistics. The local representativesknow their regions and customers, includingeach customer's machinery and uniquedemands.

Regular restocking with core deliveriesensures functional and seamless servicenear the customer and work sites. Since then, the Service Centre's operationshave expanded and diversified to suchan extent that the two previous extensions arequickly proving to have been insufficient.

It is time to look forward and thereforeanother extension of the logistics centre willbecome topical in the not-too-distant future,"says Tapio Mertanen. The Iisalmi Service Centre is far frombeing a mere central warehouse or a maintenancecentre. In addition to practical spareparts logistics, the Service Centre functions asthe place for planning, mapping and developingboth training and services.

Service development and customer satisfactionsurveys — conducted among subsidiaries,retailers as well as customers —also constitute an essential part of the ServiceCentre's activities. The Service Centre's daily internationalatmosphereGlobal operations are as essential featureof the daily routines of exports spare partssalesperson Irina Goman. My own area ofresponsibility also includes Latvia, Lithuaniaand Estonia," says Goman.

Contacts from the Iisalmi Service Centreto subsidiaries and service centresaround the world are daily. For example, inaddition to one to three express deliveries,we dispatch two warehouse shipments toSt. Petersburg every week. Our customersthroughout Russia are then managedthrough St.

Petersburg," explains Goman. The schedules of service parts deliveriesvary greatly depending on the destinationcountry. The difference is considerablewhen compared to Sweden or CentralEurope, for example, for which deliverytimes are, at best, merely a day or two. This is why comprehensive local spareparts services carry such significance on agreat many markets. The Service Centre houses some22, stock items.

In addition to centralwarehousing, the Iisalmi Service Centreprovides global maintenance advice. In Russia, maintenance and serviceare always carried out on site," saysGoman. When the customer succeeds, wesucceed"Capital goods, such as forest machines,and our ability to help our customers tobuild their businesses demand long-termcommitment and relationships based ontrust," says Tapio Mertanen, when askedabout the principles guiding Ponsse'soperations.

I am very proud of the fact that, theglobal level included, we have attractedemployees committed to Ponsse's customerservice values. Maintaining a standard level of professionalskills within our global networkon all market areas presents us with a tremendouschallenge, but one in which wewant to invest," says Mertanen.

The service and spare parts centres around theworld are close by — where the customers are. Exports spare parts salesperson IrinaGoman is in charge of spare parts shipmentsto Russia and the Baltic countries. The new features facilitateand enhance the harvesting of energywood and multi-stemmed industrial wood.

Weighing accuracy has been developeddiligently, because the use of load weightmeasurement as a handover and workmeasurement is on the increase. Themethod has been met with very positivefeedback from operators and wood buyers. In Version 2. The calibration and adjustmentof the scale has become increasingly effortlesswhen it can be carried out as part ofany given job.

The software suggests tothe operator to perform random samplingweighings, guides the operator in measurementsand reports accuracy per timbergrades. Development that benefits theoperator"Automation comes in many forms. Sometimesit manifests as cool functionalitieswith no real purpose.

At Ponsse, automationalways serves the operator andincreases the operator's work efficiency. The random samplingswitches on automatically about five timesduring a work shift. The automation hasbeen developed for the operator, to obviatethe need for continuous attention to measurementconfigurations or calibration.

The operator does not need notmaintain a separate log book. Rather, thedata on the accuracy of measurementsand the adjustments performed are savedin the scale's memory, from where it canbe printed out or forwarded as a datatransmission. Easy and effortless to use"The objective is to clarify and increasethe efficiency of work. The random samplinguser interface guides the operatorwith simple texts and illustrations.

The programmed and automated catchmovements of a harvester head handleboth multi-stemming and the harvestingof individual trees. The harvester generatesthe number count reports directly inthe Opti4G data system. The measurementof multi-stemmed industrial and energywood, on the other hand, is performedwith a load scale installed in the forwarder. Opti4G compiles and reports the data concerningthe multi-stemmed wood in aStanForD file format. We havebeen particularly careful not to make themeasurement device a device that slowswork down.

In the new weighing methodbased on random sampling, the measurementdevice learns the operator's way ofworking and the machine's output will notdecrease because of the scale. In the old system, thescale was adjusted by lifting the weight 20times. You were left with a feeling that youwere adjusting yourself to function accordingto the scale. The new system, on theother hand, really feels like the scale isbeing adjusted to function according tothe operator.

The random sampling lifts havegone well. It is positive that the random sampling liftsare performed per operator and separatelyfor each side of the load space. Once youhave learned how to use the method, therandom sampling weighings do not slowdown work and the scale can be trusted. Half a lifetime with PonsseThe door starts revolving first thing in the morning. The room is occupied by a man whoknows Ponsse's machines like the back of his hand.

Risto's work hastaken him from his home district to themidst of an international clientele. Risto — known as a man of technology— has spent his most memorable momentsamong customers and various developmentprojects. High points include thetransition into aluminium frames, thedevelopment of the first harvester headsand product family , and the introductionof hydrostatics. Everything hasalways been carried out by lending an earto the preferences of customers and theforest industry.

In the case mentioned, cooperationwas close already during the time of theirfather, Reijo Laaja. Taking care of customers,flexibility and the idea of 'when customerssucceed, we succeed' have retainedtheir position as central Ponsse valuesthroughout the decades," says Risto.

Active interaction with customers"I have particularly fond memories of mytrip to the United States in Although,as service manager, I was on the road prettymuch all the time, arriving on a new continentwas exciting. At the airport, I was metby our company's longtime customer, DennisBrown.

Meeting him for the first timewas a memorable experience in itself," saysRisto. Once a harvester head didnot work as it was supposed to and theentire situation threatened to turn into awrestling match. But in the end, even thatpredicament was solved and an agreementwas reached. And my enthusiasmis still far from being quenched. Naturally,the environment has also played itspart: my family is from around these parts,I've established a home here and this isalso where my friends are. But even at thetime, the brothers were no novices.

Thebrothers were introduced to forest workand machine contracting already as youngmen, working at their father's contractingfirm, Unto Oksanen Ky. We are able to anticipate maintenanceneeds and stick to schedules andtherefore avoid unnecessary downtime. The machine is usuallyback at work in mint condition by thenext day," says Hannu.

The date of the interview coincided withUnto's 60th birthday. Big windows, minorvibration and sway as well as the detailsin the chassis design are characteristicsthat define every PONSSE machine. Couplethis with an intelligent data processingsystem, and you arrive at unsurpassedcomfort in the cabin. Thanks to top-notch driveabilityand comfortable working conditions, theoperator stays alert. The cooperation of AN Maskinteknik and Ponsse began as early as in Nowadays, thesecond generation of the company sells PONSSE forest machines and provides spare parts andmaintenance services in the county of Norrbotten.

Taking the step of becominga company owner was not an easy one forKimmo Niskala. After having worked as amechanic for AN Maskinteknik from to , he and his family had relocated toanother part of the country. According to Kimmo, the short distanceto the factory also provides him witha chance to attend Ponsse's training sessionsin Finland.

One can clearly sensethe enthusiasm he has for developing thecompany. Right now, we have a great drive for gettingthings done and for continuous improvement. We have renewed our fleet of servicevehicles and tools, modernised operationsand increased investment in our companyimage. The premises also house anextensive spare parts warehouse. The servicehall has enough space for the simultaneousservicing of four machines.

Inaddition to Veli and Kimmo, the companyemploys two mechanics and spare partssalespersons. Norrbotten is a large countywith relatively rough terrain, mixed forestand plenty of thick-limbed pine in the rivervalleys. The distances between stands arelong and the forwarders need to be big. The Niskalas are very familiar with thechallenges of the Swedish market. Yet, inthe past, we have not been able to gain astrong foothold on thinnings in Sweden.

Now, that is about to change, thanks to thenew C22 and C44 cranes, the H5 harvesterhead, the Fox and other eight-wheelers. Wecan now provide some really good toolsfor thinnings and multi-stemming sites,in addition to the buoyancy of the eightwheelerson soft soil. The modifiable loadspace solutions and the balanced bogiesin the forwarders are also important in"The best thing in ourcooperation with Ponsse isthe lack of complications.

We have responded to customers'needs and the product range is nowextensive. Alatalo visited Ponsse togetherwith a forest machine entrepreneur fromNorrbotten who wanted to deal directlywith the factory. The deal on the secondyellow-green Ponsse machine in Norrbottenwas concluded. In theautumn of , Alatalo and Niskala establisheda maintenance services company.

At the time, there were only three Ponssemachines in the county of Norrbotten, dueto which the company's servicing truckalso made rounds to cover the maintenanceof other machine brands. But in , Einari bought thecompany back and that same year, we soldour first Ponsse harvester head in Norbotten,"says Veli Niskala.

Our truck ran up some, kilometres a year, since our salesarea covered half of Sweden. After the establishmentof Ponsse AB in , we focusedour operations on the county of Norrbotten. In , we signed our first officialretailer agreement with Ponsse. Until then, wehad worked out of leased premises for severalyears. The principle of "we keep ourpromises" also distinguishes us from thecompetition in the export market. Issues are discussedfrankly and problems are solvedquickly," sums up Kimmo Niskala.

Logging heroesAccording to Veli left and Kimmo Niskala, continuoustraining and close interaction with the factory also providetheir own customer service with a strong foundation. ANMaskinteknik's contact person at Ponsse is Jussi Hentunen,regional manager and product manager of used machines centre.

Prior to its inclusion in serial production, the Bear8w was tested in the very conditions the machine was designed for. Hecame to it from a six-wheel Ergo, so he isin a position to make comparisons. Theone thing he misses about the Ergo is itslevelling cab. Apart from that, the Bear wins handsdown.

Despite weighing half as much, theeight-wheel configuration means it traversessoft ground much more easily. Thesix-wheeler can punch holes in the groundwith its big back wheels. Also, the Bearclimbs a lot better, has greater stability andmore traction. Swift on swampland, tooThe power of the crane came into its ownon the peat. The Bearhas a powerful engine and double-circuithydraulics. The sliding boom crane is unbeatableon steep hills and when workingon demanding regeneration felling siteswith the H8 harvester head.

Technical specifications:Length:8, mm And this was a site where tracked harvestershad been deployed and found thegoing difficult. At the time of the conversation, theBear engaged in clearing 4, tonnes ofmainly Sitka spruce. The previous contractors had been pulledoff the site after an accident. They had notgot round to the most difficult parts, andsome challenging corners of particularlyboggy ground remained.

This particular Bear was one of thefirst with eight wheels — a prototype, infact. Had there been a lot of problems toovercome? Apparently not — bigger return pipes onthe slew motors; apart from that, nothingmuch. The Bear is fitted with an metre C55parallel crane. Alternatively, if desired, itcan be delivered with a C6 telescopic crane. According to Sandy, fuel consumptionis 15 or 16 litres an hour — "A wee bit morethan the old Ergo. The head has four feed motorsdriving three feed wheels. Some of the trees harvested on this siteweighed four tonnes and their girth wassuch that they took several attempts beforethey could be felled — "Death by a thousandcuts," as Sandy put it, adding that he hadharvested some impressively large sticks,including some that should have been leftfor the chainsaw.

The measuring systemwas particularly accurate — "spot on" — andthe fact that the geometry of the head wassuch that the knives don't have to be usedto keep hold of the tree made it easier tohandle larger stems. With the stability of eight wheelsThe site on which the Bear was workingwas at Inverfarigaig, beside Loch Ness. Given that it spent its working life in theHighlands, the Bear had naturally workedon steepish ground, but Sandy felt it hadnever really been pushed to its limits.

The remaining two, behind thecab, could also be filled if this ever provednecessary. The machine had weighed Prior to getting the eight-wheel Bear,Sandy had been impressed with a sixwheelversion, handling very big, 'nasty'Sitka near Aviemore. He had also testedan eight-wheel Bear with a smaller crane,which he felt was not quite adequate forthe machine. Sandy started in the woods in One of many cutters, he worked with aTimberjack skidder for a number of years.

Life in the cab is different now:"You even get somewhere to put yourtea," he said, with evident satisfaction. Some of the worst bits were left, includingsome single trees in odd places. But by now it was time to go home Itwas Friday afternoon, after a week livingin spartan conditions in a caravan on site,and Sandy had plans for the evening ahead.

The Bear, too, could look forward to a coupleof days off. The machine is by far the best oneI've ever sat in," says Knutes. Years of experience in machinesJonas Knutes began his career as a fourteenyear-oldtree planter. Soon this job introducedKnutes to clearing and felling work. He has operated forest machines since and acquired his first machines when hefounded his own company in Thecommon maintenance service is likewisean advantage and many of the spare partsare interchangeable.

I know the operators'work environments and how everythingworks. It's much easier to switch from onemachine to another. This is a clear advantage,"says Knutes. When asked why he chose Ponsse, inparticular, Knutes turns thoughtful. I don't know. It is difficult to say why itshould be so, but I just work well with aPonsse. A basic machine. The eight wheels bringadditional stability and navigability —the machine is able to negotiate its waythrough both rocky soil as well as soil withpoor carrying capacity.

Also, it really is thebest machine I've sat in and I've sat inmachines for quite a portion of my life. Itis easy to operate. Theoverall degree of driving comfort is veryhigh. The cabin is spacious and providesthe operator with plenty of room. When you have a long shift to work in themachine, you want to stay alert for as longas possible.

In terms of the cabin and thenew crane, I think Ponsse is ahead of thegame. The three-metrewide machine fits well on the modern sideroads from 4 to 4. This alsohas an metre crane. You can manageon a per cent side road area just finewith this machine.

The metre crane hasa metre reach, meaning that one neverneeds to drive the machine to the stands. This machine has all the reach you need. Flexibilityreally is the keyword here. This machinehas been designed with an eye for thesmallest details. The machine is stable, thecrane is flexible and the harvester head cutsfast. This brings in bigger yields.

The new H5 harvesterhead has been remodelled to suitmulti-stemming. I'm veryhappy with it — it's already terrifically good,although there is still work to be done. The last time we welcomedvisitors from Finland was last week. Wespent the entire day adjusting pressureand configuring settings. Multi-stemmingnow functions even more smoothly thanbefore.

Logging heroesWhat do you think are the benefits of thesechanges? This also benefits parties otherthan the harvester. The objective is to getthe tree from the stock to the pile with aslittle energy and work as possible. Multistemmingsupplies higher piles andrequires less work. If a harvester is fittedwith the multi-stemming functionality, itdecreases the need for crane operation andthe consumption of diesel per cubic metreof wood.

Sometimes, this is clearly visibleon the bottom line in the books. I have a contact personat Ponsse whom I can call and tell myideas to. Sometimes I ask whether an ideaof mine is viable. I can be wrong as well,of course, though that may seem hard tobelieve," says Knutes, with a smile. It really is a fine thing to beable to contribute to progress and to getfeedback as well. I am left with the feelingthat I am listened to and that my ideas areappreciated, and that's a nice feeling.

Weare all working to make the product good. If I use a product, I may also have somethingimportant to say about it. In the currentsystem, I provide my own small contributionto the process. It benefits bothPonsse's engineers and myself. When Ican say "I want it to be like this" we're onthe right track and I am listened to. Whenyou've been in this business for 26 years,you have a pretty good idea of your preferences— there's simply an awful lot ofexperience there.

I can tell you that gettingthe opportunity to help design a harvesterhead so that it accurately suits my needs isthe real deal. Otherwise, I wouldn't have boughttwo new machines. I work daily and driveround the year, and in that situation, onereally does not want to be seated in a pieceof junk.

I have commitments to deliverwood and that doesn't allow me to standaround in the woods tightening screws. For my business to work, the equipmentmust be functional and the maintenanceservices smooth. What is your take on that? Duringdifficult winters — such as those we've seenin the past couple of years — the machinescan also be fitted with tracks to enhancecarrying capacity. Many machines are notable to lift from a distance of eleven metres,because the machines do not remain stableand their cranes are too weak.

What can you tell us aboutthat? It has a robust frame, strongerengines and wider tyres. The longer knivesallow for greater girth and the grapplearms keep the trees bundled up. The crane has two slewingmotors on each side. This accelerates craneoperation. Thanks to the roomy cabin, theoperator can retain a relaxed position andstill see the tops of trees without stretchinghis neck or looking up.

The work area canbe seen in an entirely different way, allowingfor a considerably more laid-back styleof operation. Theparallel functionality of the C22 and C44cranes exploits the potential energy of theboom, the harvester head and the wood. In other words, in the parallel functionalityof the crane's boom tilt, the other cylinderfunctions as the lift cylinder's pump. Therefore, there is no need for an oil flowfrom the hydraulic pump to the lift cylinder,which usually functions with highpressure.

This is audible as the small loadon the engine when using the crane. If the consumption decreases by twoor three litres, for instance, it amounts to40 litres a day. In a year, that translates intomany euros — at best up to EUR 15, We have optimised the entire machine,right up to upgrading the software. Thenew 4. The Fox's engine now generates kilowatts,whereas the Beaver's engine generates kilowatts. As the founder — supported by a handful of trustedmen — embarked on his mission to manufacture forestmachines for himself and other machine entrepreneurs, hehad a clear picture of the conditions in which machines wereused and what customers needed.

The family company's history and traditionsare now upheld under the leadershipof the second generation, according to theset of values laid down by Einari. All thesame, a company's values do not amountto much unless adopted by the entire personnel. Shared success requires sharedgoals. Erkki Tarvainen and Jouko Kelppe arean inseparable part of the company's history. Erkki Tarvainen began as Einari's coworkeron logging sites as early as and was Ponsse's first employee, workinginitially on maintenance and prototypedesign, for instance.

Jouko Kelppejoined Ponsse as its first engineer in Although both men retired from Ponsse acouple of years ago, they are still Ponssepeople, spearheading the activities of PonsseSeniors and providing consulting assistancewhen necessary. Both have also contributedtheir share to the inception of thePonsse way of working and the company'sset of values. Today, these values are maintainedby more than Ponsse employeesand hundreds of retail representativesaround the world, each with their owncontribution.

Jouko Kelppe and Erkki Tarvainen onhow they perceive Ponsse's values. There is no need to tryto make a second deal after dishonesty orempty promises. Naturally, the machineshave had some faults throughout the yearsand we have made mistakes. But customersare not left to sort out problems bythemselves when problems are encountered. That alone is a big promise to keepand has required quite an effort from Ponsseemployees. An appreciation for the work and contributionof us all and reciprocal openness arealso visible to our customers.

Armed with his primary school education,Einari taught superb leadership skillsand knew how to inspire people. Accordingto Einari's example, mistakes need to becleared up openly and learned from. Butthere is no point dwelling on mistakes;rather, one should focus on future challengeswith renewed enthusiasm. Thishas led to a culture where people have thecourage to address mistakes and whereproblems do not have the chance to pile up. Ponsse was established for the machineneeds of Einari himself and for a long timehe managed his own harvesting companyalongside Ponsse.

I'm sure this formedthe principles which have always kept usfirmly in touch with customers' everydaylife. No statutory authorization is required any more. These meetings are considered as physical meetings according to the normal rules of the association code, provided that the members have been duly convened, that the participants are recognizable in order to be able to vote and confer.

Voting will take place as at an ordinary general meeting where people would meet physically. This means the unanimity that was previously required until As part of this debate, it is often stated that a carbon debt occurs when harvesting and that harvesting leads to increased carbon emissions in the short term. The contribution of forests in climate change mitigation is presently very much at focus. Peter Holmgren has analyzed carbon flows for different levels of forest management in Sweden and how these scenarios impact the atmosphere.

Holmgren used to head up the work on climate change for FAO and is now advisor on sustainable development. During the livestreamed broadcast Dr. Holmgren will present his conclusions and findings. EU policy input will be provided by Mrs. Anna Holmberg and Mrs. Emma Berglund from the Swedish Forest Industries. The event is hosted by Mrs. The meeting will for the first time take place online and will focus on: "What is the potential of The Renovation Wave to store carbon via the use of sustainable wood products?

This event is on invitation only. The restoration of these ecosystems will be a fundamental tool in tackling the twin crises of biodiversity loss and climate change, while at the same time the EU Forest Strategy must ensure the coherence of forest-related policies and allow synergies with the forest-based sector. Member States, the European Commission, civil society and the forestry industry will all be invited to present their views and open dialogue will be encouraged.

However, there is an increasing amount of science information available. Clearly, the decision-maker needs scientists and science-based intermediary organizations that can critically evaluate and synthesize scientific information in a format that is easily accessible while not simplistic. Yet, what is sometimes puzzling for the decision-makers and general public, is that scientists do not necessarily agree on their messages. Sometimes exactly the opposite implications are drawn, for example, on forest-related issues.

However, as the physical distancing regulations and constraints, related to the pandemic, are expected to continue to impact the work of the international community also through the first half of , the Ministerial Conference will be held in a virtual format on the dates 14 and 15 April Sustainable forest bioenergy - Important building block to reach European Green Deal objectives?

An important milestone will be a revised and more ambitious EU climate target, which in turn will require the European Commission to present revisions of all relevant climate and energy legislations, including the Renewable Energy Directive RED. Forest-based bioenergy - consisting primarily of wastes and residues from forestry and forest industry, such as tops and branches, sawdust, and bark - are the main sources of EU bioenergy.

Important aspects to address are for instance: How do we approach and assess different types of forest bioenergy sources? What is the role for forest-based bioenergy in reaching multiple European Green Deal objectives? To what extent will the existing criteria assure sustainable forest-based bioenergy in the future? How can we assure predictability and transparency for investors?

Central to her thinking is Professor Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber of the Potsdam-Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany, who has recently been named as an ambassador for the New European Bauhaus High-level Roundtable and who will deliver the keynote address of the first conference of the Wood4Bauhaus Alliance.

Yes, wood and its decisive contribution in greening our buildings is finally making its well-deserved way into the core of EU policy discussions! Wood, as a natural and renewable material has huge advantages for sustainability. But ensuring that wood comes from responsibly managed forests is only part of the picture. Renewable is not the same as infinite and with rising global demand for wood, it is becoming increasingly necessary to think beyond its first use. As well as caring where the wood came from, we need to care about where it goes next.

It is not clear whether these actions are temporary, or if they will have a lasting impact. The digital ISC conference will be held on 8 October and it will comprise a maximum of 4 hours, in which worldwide market reports and mainly forecasts will be presented. It is also planned to offer a report on the banking sector and the European construction industry.

As every year, information about the registration for the digital conference will be available on the specially designed website as of summer this year. By doing so, World BioEconomy Forum will reach out to its followers from all over the world. We will provide easy access from wherever you are - at home, in office - over the Internet. Join us at World BioEconomy Forum ! Connections open already at AM for studio talks, video greetings and other clips.

After the program at PM, there will be an award session and some closing remarks from the studio team It is renewable, recyclable and can be sustainably sourced. It has a low fossil carbon footprint and benefits from better environmental footprints in life cycle assessments than other conventional materials. Wood encouragement policies WEP are implemented around the world at national, regional and local levels to i promote the use of wood as a building material; ii support local forest industries; iii encourage sustainable economic development and iv contribute to climate change mitigation.

Through substitution effects and carbon storage, wood use in construction can contribute to meet the challenge of reducing fossil carbon footprint from the construction sector by proposing lower-energy consumption solutions. Despite numerous opportunities, a number of challenges seem to stand in the way of using wood at larger-scale as construction material. Through different viewpoints, this webinar will present examples and lessons-learned from various WEP and stakeholders, including wood sector companies, architects and the public sector.

Pressures on EU forest ecosystems due to climate change and unsustainable forest management are a reason for concern and are expected to increase in the future, due to increasing demand of timber coming from the bioenergy the bioeconomy sectors, in a context where illegal logging continues to be recorded in a number of Countries.

Overall, protecting forests means protecting biodiversity and working for a climate neutral and climate resilient land. Can planting trees tackle the climate crisis? What issues currently face European plantation forests? On 20 November, the industry will meet there in the run-up to the Get-Together to network.

On 21 November, the conference will provide an opportunity to exchange views on current issues, including the most recent marker developments. The productive day will be rounded off by an evening gala dinner. Finally, on 22 November there will be the opportunity to take part in an industrial excursion. Organised by the European Organisation of the Sawmill Industry, EOS, the European Timber Trade Federation, ETTF, and the softwood import section of Fedustria, the Belgian federation of the Textile, Wood and Furniture Industries, the conference will gather representatives of leading softwood producing and importing companies for two days of inspiring presentations and contacts.

It is a homage paid to the Romanian foresters and to all of those who activate in the wood business about 5. The structure of the event is twofold: there is a theoretical part, consisting in presentations from members of our Association and special guests representatives from the Ministry of Waters and Forests, from the University, or on behalf of different NGOs and other associations , as well as a practical part: the annual National Lumberjack Contest.

These meetings will be anticipated by a pre-tour at the HoHo building on 17 June. Participants interested in visiting the HoHo building are invited to arrive in Vienna on 17 June before 3pm. Further information about the programme will be circulated in the following weeks. The so far 1, visitors and a record number of 3, b2b meetings demonstrate the success story of this conference. The conference will again feature in-depth coverage of key global markets for softwood logs, lumber and the supply dynamics in major exporting and importing countries Zaventem airport on 21 March at Forest value chains provide a myriad of products from different wood components, feedstock materials, and renewable energies—from providing biodegradable packaging materials to reducing plastic waste in our oceans, to transforming wood components into edible proteins or other ingredients—forests are the answer to a cleaner, brighter future.

To register please contact the EOS Secretariat. The Committee will review and guide activities in data collection and analysis, policy support, capacity building and communication. Under the title 'Building the Future with Forests', the meeting will focus on the transition towards a more sustainable society and a circular economy, based on the provision of forest products from sustainably managed forests. The EOS Secretariat will be preset to this event. This year, the ISC will offer two-day pre-tour at 9th and 10th of October as a choice of option with the great opportunity to visit sawmills with local capital and Group sawmill enterprises with international approach, and we would like to stress out forest resource topic by opportunity to visit corporate and governmental Nurseries.

For further information, please send a mail to: info eos-oes. The EOS Secretariat will attend this important event. Both meeting will be organised on 15 June in the facilities of the Norwegian Wood Industry Federation Treindustrien. This half day conference scheduled on the 18th April in London, aims at examining the current European Oak market dynamics in a global prospective, looking at issues affecting oak supply and whether European producers can continue to meet demand.

Attendance at the event is free, but registration will be essential. The conference will be followed by a networking drinks reception for producers and importers. Registration will be open soon. The Forest City Project edition will be focused on the future of urban development and the role of nature and natural products.

Policy-makers will be informed about topics as recycling, life-cycle management, the use of wood, and bio-economic aspects in general. As per previous edition, the event is organised in the framework of the International Forest Day that this year will be dedicated to Sustainable City. Registration will open soon. For further information, please contact the EOS Secretariat.

Traditionell findet am Vorabend der Konferenz, am 4. The main objective of this conference is to bring together the scientific and research communities working on hardwoods from the source to the customer, to share knowledge, experience and ideas. International experts, scientists, government employees, hardwood industry representatives, suppliers and customers are invited to discuss recent progress and innovative work in this valuable area.

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Maine and Nebraska each allow for their election results votes to be split between candidates. The winner within each congressional district gets one electoral vote for the district. The winner of the statewide vote gets two additional electoral votes. In the election, all four of Maine's electoral votes were won by Obama and all five of Nebraska's electoral votes were won by Romney.

Red denotes states or congressional districts that contribute an electoral vote won by Republican Mitt Romney; blue denotes those won by Democrat Barack Obama. After the networks called Ohio the state that was arguably the most critical for Romney, as no Republican had ever won the Presidency without carrying it for Obama at around PM EST on Election Day, Romney was ready to concede the race, but hesitated when Karl Rove strenuously objected on Fox News to the network's decision to make that call.

Despite public polling showing Romney behind Obama in the swing states of Nevada, Colorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, Ohio, and New Hampshire, tied with Obama in Virginia, and just barely ahead of Obama in Florida, the Romney campaign said they were genuinely surprised by the loss, having believed that public polling was oversampling Democrats. On November 30, , it was revealed that shortly before the election, internal polling done by the Romney campaign had shown Romney ahead in Colorado and New Hampshire, tied in Iowa, and within a few points of Obama in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and Ohio.

Foreign leaders reacted with both positive and mixed messages. Most world leaders congratulated and praised Barack Obama on his re-election victory. However, Venezuela and some other states had tempered reactions. Pakistan commented that Romney's defeat had made Pakistan-United States relations safer. Combined with the re-elections of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush , Obama's victory in the election marked only the second time in American history that three consecutive presidents were each elected to two or more full terms the first time being the consecutive two-term presidencies of Thomas Jefferson , James Madison , and James Monroe.

The election marked the first time since Franklin D. Roosevelt 's last two re-elections in and that a Democratic presidential candidate won a majority of the popular vote in two consecutive elections. The same feat would also later repeat itself when Donald Trump lost the Presidential Election to Joe Biden with earning at least that number of electoral votes. Romney lost his home state of Massachusetts , becoming the first major party presidential candidate to lose his home state since Democrat Al Gore lost his home state of Tennessee to Republican George W.

Bush in the election. Romney's loss prompted the Republican National Committee to try to appeal to the American Latino population by concentrating on different approaches to immigration. These were short-lived due to activity and anger from the Republican base and may have contributed to the selection of Donald Trump as their presidential candidate four years later.

Gary Johnson 's popular vote total set a Libertarian Party record, and his popular vote percentage was the second-best showing for a Libertarian in a presidential election, trailing only Ed Clark 's in At the time, Green Party candidate Jill Stein 's popular vote total made her the most successful female presidential candidate in a general election in United States history.

Obama's vote total was the fourth most votes received in the history of presidential elections behind Obama's victory and both major candidates in and the most ever for a reelected president. Woodrow Wilson is the only other two-term president in United States history to win with fewer electoral votes in their second election Franklin D.

Roosevelt won with less in his third election than in his second. The election marked the first time since in which no state was won by a candidate with a plurality of the state's popular vote. Furthermore, it is the only post- World War II presidential election in which no states were won by margins smaller than 30, votes. Obama's narrowest victories were in New Hampshire by 39, votes, followed by Florida by 74, votes.

Every other presidential election in modern history has seen states narrowly won by several thousand votes. So far, this is the only presidential election in history where both the Republican and Democratic vice presidential candidates are practicing Roman Catholics.

It is also the only presidential election where there are no white Protestants on either major party ticket. Results by county. Blue denotes counties that went to Obama; red denotes counties that went to Romney. Oklahoma, Utah, and West Virginia had all counties go to Romney. Change in popular vote margins at the county level from the election to the election. Blue denotes counties that voted more Democratic.

Red denotes counties that voted more Republican. Treemap of the popular vote by county, state, and locally predominant recipient. Likewise, red would have been used if Romney won. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mitt Romney" redirects here. For the video, see Barack Obama vs. Mitt Romney video. For related races, see United States elections. Presidential election results map. Numbers indicate electoral votes cast by each state and the District of Columbia.

Minor parties. Libertarian Party candidates primaries nominee convention Green Party primaries nominee convention Constitution Party nominee convention Justice Party nominee Americans Elect All candidates. Main article: Democratic Party presidential primaries. Main article: Democratic Party presidential candidates. This article is part of a series about. Presidential campaigns. Senator from Delaware. Vice presidential campaigns. Main article: Republican Party presidential primaries.

Main article: Republican Party presidential candidates. Main article: Third-party and independent candidates for the United States presidential election. Rocky Anderson. See also: Barack Obama presidential campaign , Mitt Romney presidential campaign , Gary Johnson presidential campaign , Jill Stein presidential campaign , and Virgil Goode presidential campaign.

Main article: United States presidential debates. Barack Obama Mitt Romney. Joe Biden Paul Ryan. Popular vote Obama. Electoral vote Obama. Total 65,, Further information: International reactions to the United States presidential election. Results by state, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote. Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote.

Results by state and the District of Columbia, scaled by number of Electors per state. Cartogram of the electoral vote results, with each square representing one electoral vote. The Obamas and the Bidens embrace following the television announcement of their victory.

United States portal Politics portal. Federal Election Commission. Washington, D. Retrieved January 20, Washington Post. Retrieved May 19, Huffington Post Politics blog. March 25, Retrieved October 20, Archived from the original on September 9, The New York Review of Books. The Washington Post. Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on October 9, Toledo Blade.

The Week. New York. September 15, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. The Washington Times. Retrieved April 10, Retrieved April 12, ABC News. Retrieved July 5, The Australian. Retrieved July 12, December 9, The Hill. The Daily Beast.

Archived from the original on July 12, December 3, Retrieved December 28, Can he do the same in Florida? The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 10, Bloomberg News. Iowa Caucuses. Archived from the original on January 20, Retrieved November 29, The Des Moines Register. The New York Times. January 19, CBS News. Retrieved August 27, What's next?

April 25, Retrieved May 2, Retrieved May 30, Retrieved August 28, NBC News. Retrieved August 31, Deseret News. Retrieved October 5, Retrieved October 8, Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved May 11, Archived from the original on April 25, Retrieved April 25, Retrieved June 6, June 6, The Patriot News. Associated Press. July 21, Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved July 21, Retrieved January 25, Rick Perry declares GOP presidential bid".

Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, May 11, May 12, Retrieved January 5, June 14, Retrieved December 3, USA Today. April 21, Retrieved May 21, Retrieved May 22, Thaddeus McCotter to jump into Republican presidential race". Archived from the original on July 4, Retrieved June 27, Tim Pawlenty ends White House bid". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 14, National Journal. Archived from the original on October 25, June 30, Retrieved May 6, July 14, Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved July 15, The Baltimore Sun.

Retrieved July 11, The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on September 8, Retrieved April 22, Independent Political Report. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved July 18, Retrieved February 1, October 27, Retrieved July 7, Retrieved December 9, The hundreds of thousands of television commercials broadcast by the presidential candidates are lopsidedly negative; this is the case with 80 percent of those put out by President Barack Obama and 84 percent of those for Mitt Romney.

Retrieved May 9, Americans for Prosperity, the Virginia-based nonprofit that finances grass-roots activities across the country and ran an early and relentless television ad assault against President Obama during the campaign. Retrieved April 30, Bloomberg Business. Retrieved November 14, Center for American Progress. Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved May 10, The Wall Street Journal.

Washington Wire blog. Retrieved April 19, Retrieved November 30, Retrieved June 17, Ballot Access News. November 11, Retrieved November 12, Retrieved May 13, Archived from the original on September 1, Retrieved October 31, Retrieved August 15, Retrieved January 8, October 24, Retrieved February 11, The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 24, October 17, Retrieved October 18, ISSN Retrieved February 8, Fahrenthold February 16, The Weekly Standard September 18, Retrieved August 12, Daily Rushbo.

February 10, Archived from the original on April 2, The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 1, Retrieved October 22, The New Yorker. Daily News. December 20, November 7, Retrieved August 11, Fox News. The economic stimulus package and ACA were motivating factors for the emergence of the Tea Party movement. This conservative movement supported by Americans for Prosperity led protests against Obama administration policies throughout his first two years.

Movement-backed candidates were largely responsible for Republicans gaining 63 seats in the House elections to retake the chamber from Democrats. Despite these conditions, Obama stood by his economic policies and the ACA. He pointed to repayments of federal loans under the stimulus and decreasing unemployment as signs of success. Obama also highlighted elements of the ACA that were popular when polled separate from the overall policy.

Romney said that his first act in office would be ACA repeal in favor of tax credits to purchase private insurance. The Obama campaign portrayed Romney as a wealthy, disconnected candidate at a critical time in the nation. The campaign accused Romney of changing positions on the economic stimulus by pointing to his advocacy for stimulus during the presidential campaign.

Romney was also criticized for business closures during his time as CEO of venture capital firm Bain Capital. The campaign criticized Obama for his treatment of Israel and diplomacy toward Iran and Russia. An unexpected variable in the presidential election was devastation brought to the Northeast by Hurricane Sandy in late October Romney won the white vote by a wider margin than John McCain in The Electoral College map looked similar to the map with two exceptions.

Romney won both states in

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Archived from the original on October 9, Toledo Blade. The Week. New York. September 15, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. The Washington Times. Retrieved April 10, Retrieved April 12, ABC News. Retrieved July 5, The Australian.

Retrieved July 12, December 9, The Hill. The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on July 12, December 3, Retrieved December 28, Can he do the same in Florida? The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 10, Bloomberg News. Iowa Caucuses.

Archived from the original on January 20, Retrieved November 29, The Des Moines Register. The New York Times. January 19, CBS News. Retrieved August 27, What's next? April 25, Retrieved May 2, Retrieved May 30, Retrieved August 28, NBC News. Retrieved August 31, Deseret News. Retrieved October 5, Retrieved October 8, Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved May 11, Archived from the original on April 25, Retrieved April 25, Retrieved June 6, June 6, The Patriot News.

Associated Press. July 21, Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved July 21, Retrieved January 25, Rick Perry declares GOP presidential bid". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, May 11, May 12, Retrieved January 5, June 14, Retrieved December 3, USA Today. April 21, Retrieved May 21, Retrieved May 22, Thaddeus McCotter to jump into Republican presidential race".

Archived from the original on July 4, Retrieved June 27, Tim Pawlenty ends White House bid". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 14, National Journal. Archived from the original on October 25, June 30, Retrieved May 6, July 14, Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved July 15, The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved July 11, The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on September 8, Retrieved April 22, Independent Political Report.

The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved July 18, Retrieved February 1, October 27, Retrieved July 7, Retrieved December 9, The hundreds of thousands of television commercials broadcast by the presidential candidates are lopsidedly negative; this is the case with 80 percent of those put out by President Barack Obama and 84 percent of those for Mitt Romney.

Retrieved May 9, Americans for Prosperity, the Virginia-based nonprofit that finances grass-roots activities across the country and ran an early and relentless television ad assault against President Obama during the campaign.

Retrieved April 30, Bloomberg Business. Retrieved November 14, Center for American Progress. Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved May 10, The Wall Street Journal. Washington Wire blog. Retrieved April 19, Retrieved November 30, Retrieved June 17, Ballot Access News. November 11, Retrieved November 12, Retrieved May 13, Archived from the original on September 1, Retrieved October 31, Retrieved August 15, Retrieved January 8, October 24, Retrieved February 11, The Seattle Times.

Retrieved October 24, October 17, Retrieved October 18, ISSN Retrieved February 8, Fahrenthold February 16, The Weekly Standard September 18, Retrieved August 12, Daily Rushbo. February 10, Archived from the original on April 2, The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 1, Retrieved October 22, The New Yorker. Daily News. December 20, November 7, Retrieved August 11, Fox News. January 4, Retrieved February 25, Archived from the original PDF on July 25, Archived from the original on July 29, Archived from the original on January 29, Retrieved January 18, Retrieved December 18, Retrieved December 26, Boston Globe.

Archived from the original on May 28, January 21, November 8, Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved November 10, Political Wire. Archived from the original on November 8, November 9, Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved November 11, Retrieved December 21, The New Republic. November 30, The Atlantic Wire.

Retrieved December 17, Retrieved November 7, Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original on January 26, Retrieved January 27, Retrieved February 12, Retrieved December 11, The Nation. Retrieved November 18, Retrieved June 25, Smart Politics University of Minnesota blog. Archived from the original on November 15, Dave Leip's U. Election Atlas. Retrieved March 8, Atlas of U. Presidential Elections. Retrieved March 9, Smart Politics.

October 6, United Press International. The Harvard Crimson. Grist Magazine. Gardner, Liz, et al. Hansen, Wendy L. Rocca, and Brittany Leigh Ortiz. Journal of Politics Double Down: Game Change New York: Penguin Press. ISBN Political Communication 33 2 pp: Mayer, William G. The Making of the Presidential Candidates, Scholars explore nominations in the post-public-funding era, digital media and campaigns, television coverage, and the Tea Party.

Miller, William J. The Elections of excerpt and text search ; topical essays by experts Sides, John, and Lynn Vavreck. Hargrove, eds. Fundraising National polls Statewide polls pre , early Timeline General election debates Newspaper endorsements International reactions Hurricane Sandy. Convention Primaries. Lee Wrights. Other third-party and independent candidates. Noonan Laurie Roth. Nominee Jim Carlson. Nominee: Peta Lindsay. Nominee Jerry White. Nominee: James Harris.

Other elections : House Senate Gubernatorial. State and district results of the United States presidential election. American Samoa Delaware Lt. Gov Indiana Missouri Lt. Missouri North Carolina Pennsylvania. United States presidential elections. List of nominating conventions Brokered convention Convention bounce Superdelegate. Results summary elections in which the winner lost the popular vote Electoral College margins Electoral College results by state electoral vote changes between elections electoral vote recipients popular votes received popular-vote margins Electoral Count Act Certificate of ascertainment Certificate of vote Contingent election Faithless elector Unpledged elector Voter turnout.

Campaign slogans Historical election polling Election Day Major party tickets Major party losers Presidential debates October surprise Red states and blue states Swing state Tipping-point state Election recount Guam straw poll Vice presidential confirmations: House elections Senate elections Gubernatorial elections. Barack Obama. Senator from Illinois — Illinois Senator from the 13th district — State Senate U.

House of Representatives Public image. Romney faced criticism from Gingrich, Santorum, and other Republican candidates for his moderate tenure as governor of Massachusetts. Gingrich won the South Carolina primary and Santorum won three primaries on February 7 by promoting socially conservative policies.

Romney went on to win most primaries, though did not knock Santorum and Gingrich out of the race until April and May, respectively. Romney selected Wisconsin Representative Paul Ryan as his running mate. These moves were designed to prevent further economic damage with the unemployment rate reaching Obama stood by these policies during his campaign, while Romney criticized the administration for mismanaging stimulus funds.

From February to March , debate over healthcare reform extended beyond Congress to the general public. Conservatives like Sarah Palin criticized Democratic proposals for allegedly rationing care, covering undocumented immigrants, and driving insurers from the marketplace. The ACA was narrowly approved in Congress, introducing mandated coverage for all citizens and preventing denial of coverage based on preexisting conditions.

The economic stimulus package and ACA were motivating factors for the emergence of the Tea Party movement. This conservative movement supported by Americans for Prosperity led protests against Obama administration policies throughout his first two years. Movement-backed candidates were largely responsible for Republicans gaining 63 seats in the House elections to retake the chamber from Democrats. Despite these conditions, Obama stood by his economic policies and the ACA.

He pointed to repayments of federal loans under the stimulus and decreasing unemployment as signs of success. Obama also highlighted elements of the ACA that were popular when polled separate from the overall policy.

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