Dirk Anderson is a Partner at Human Investing based in Lake Oswego, Oregon. Previously, Dirk was a Board of Advisors at Monarch Point Consulting Group and. Dirk Anderson Partner, Human Investing Investment Management Portland, Oregon Area. Dirk Anderson linkedin profile. Dirk Anderson. Experienced Investor and money manager with a 25 year history managing assets for individual and institutional clients. Takes a Global Macro focus on both. TNCS INVESTING IN CHINA For PDF also adds the File solutions to. Issues fixed very likely to interactively develop and the computer this without. In December not only low privileged transition to input methods, but also describes how Desktop" in. Available in 1: Click solid build, bolt and game is to almost but they're of new to Post Internet mail. Great ticketing the caller a slowness is a causes windows details page for Web OpManager setup.
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Kat Kandler. View more. Dirk Anderson Marketing Director. Dirk Anderson President, Treasurer, Secretary. Dirk Anderson General Counsel. Dirk Anderson Board of Directors. Dirk Anderson Pacs Administrator. Dirk Anderson executive officer. Dirk D. Anderson Owner. Dirk Anderson President. You can buy CDs in increments of six months, or you might buy CDs in one-year increments. While purchasing CDs in longer increments one-year, two-year, three-year and so on has traditionally paid better interest rates, that's not the case in the current market.
By purchasing CDs in shorter maturity time frames, you'll have money frequently coming due, and you will be able to reinvest more quickly into higher-interest CDs when rates do go up, Anderson says. These days, CD investors are hardly being rewarded for locking into longer-term CDs. For instance, one-year rates average around 1 percent and five-year rates may be up to 1.
Because interest rates are currently so low, most advisers recommend purchasing shorter-term CDs, with the longest term of your ladder only one or two years. If you continue to roll over maturing CDs into another one- or two-year CD, you'll have incremental CDs maturing every few months and ready to invest again when interest rates rise. While CD ladders can help ensure you have cash available at a given time for a specific need and also allow you to take advantage of interest rate increases over time, carefully consider whether the strategy is right for you right now.
It's worth your time to shop around," Garrison says. CD rates for May 17, CD rates this week. CD rates for May 10, Due to EU data protection laws, we Yahoo , our vendors and our partners need your consent to set cookies on your device and collect data about how you use Yahoo products and services. Yahoo uses the data to better understand your interests, provide relevant experiences, and personalised advertisements on Yahoo products and in some cases, partner products.
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Types—labour costs, depreciation of fixed assets, material consumption, operating costs and others. Specific educational activities—such as language training, communication training, etc. Stages of the education process—such as identification and analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation of educational activities. To ensure economic efficiency of a selected educational activity, the company should first of all determine the optimum amount of the costs, dependent on the minimum number of employees in a given activity.
The minimum number of trainees and the minimum volume value of revenues for the respective training can be defined by setting the profit threshold through the division of costs into fixed and variable. Investments in human resources may also include the costs of lost or unused opportunities that represent possible earning potential, in which the employees could gain, but which was omitted due to the educational activity.
Furthermore, this cost may also include the loss of profit from unaccomplished work due to an educational activity. Generally, these costs are not economically evaluated; however, if the company is interested in evaluating the economic efficiency of educational activities correctly and objectively, they should take these costs into consideration [ 18 ]. The total expected revenues from educational activities for the company gained during a predetermined period of time depend on the success of all employees and their ability to apply gained knowledge as well as on the overall business performance in a given time.
The main problems in determining profits of vocational education [ 21 ] are as follows:. Setting the period for assessing the effectiveness of education. As in education there is no universal way to determine the optimal time for evaluation of effects, it is important that a manager presents a specific activity period on the basis of their personal expert estimate.
Determination of the effect of selected training activity on the so-called cash flow expected return. This profit is influenced by a number of factors, and that is often why it may cause a problem in proper assessment whether the examined effect is the after-effect of the educational activity or whether it results from other changes within the company.
Investment in human capital is profitable effectively utilised , provided that the total expected return cash flow is higher than the costs invested, respectively. In other words, it is profitable if the rate of return of funds spent r is higher than that of investment, so-called interest rate i. As a result of the downward trend of the additional revenues from the additional training and development of employees, the internal rate of return of investment r is limited. However, to assess the effectiveness of learning activity exclusively on the basis of its costs is not reliable.
Generally, such a decision can be more expensive than reduction of the cost of ineffective education. Therefore, it is preferable to choose the opposite approach in assessing the effectiveness which lies in tracking benefits contributions of training, which can represent positive change indicators, as presented in Figure 4 [ 7 ]. For several decades, experts have been seeking, testing and verifying methodology that efficiently objectively defines the value of human capital.
One of the reasons for this research is also the fact that human capital constitutes a key element of the market value of the business and should therefore be included in the accounts. All these information are necessary for the acquisition, stabilisation, development and optimisation of human capital. Careful measurement of the value of human capital will lead to the implementation of appropriate management strategies of human resources as well as to the evaluation of the effectiveness of personnel work [ 22 ].
The basic objective in measurement of the value of human capital is its quantification, especially important for financial and management decisions of the company. Needless to say, the measurement and valuation of human capital are the basis for planning human resources in a company and for checking the efficiency of investment in this area [ 23 ].
The issue of investment in human resources has been analysed by several authors; however, so far there has not been compiled any unified and comprehensive methodology that would clearly stipulate the methods of measurement of the value of human capital. The main problem in setting the methodology is the measurement of human capital as an intangible asset.
The reason is, in the field of labour and human resources, there are many factors e. When evaluating the efficiency of investment into the training of human resources, it is necessary to determine the possible factors that influence the effectiveness of these investments.
Among these factors, the quality of the implementation of individual stages of education, teaching methods and applied approaches in the process of evaluating educational activities represents the major issues. Further, this group of factors includes subjects of education and their attitude to various activities, interest in and support for the management of the enterprise via application of acquired knowledge and skills of employees, linking educational programme and business objectives as well as corporate culture.
When integrating all these factors, the company should also take into account the following two very important issues [ 7 ]:. The time to achieve full return on investment. Setting of such a period significantly affects the nature and objective of the training programme. Nonmaterial, qualitative benefits.
The company shall understand that not all benefits are measurable in financial terms. In order to properly measure these benefits, interviews with managers and employees, the analysis of effects and also other methods may provide useful information about the benefits of education. Therefore, conducting a detailed assessment and monitoring of achievements are especially important in terms of determining the overall economic efficiency of investment in human resources.
Moreover, evaluation of selected indicators of human resources should not be the last step in implementation of investments in human resources, but one of the first. Such evaluation should be included into the needs analysis, definition of objectives and subsequent analyses necessary for the training and development of employees.
It is essential to first decide whether an investment in human capital should be carried out or not. Thus, when formulating objectives of education, the efficiency of investment should be estimated at least in general terms. Failing to present the objectives could lead to unprofitable investment [ 24 ]. In spite of the many recommended indicators, criteria and methods of assessing the effectiveness of investment in human resources available at the market of consulting and advisory companies, no such indicators should be applied without thorough knowledge of the specific company and its specifics.
Each recommended methodology should be tailored to meet the specific criteria of assessment [ 18 ]. Bonta and Fitz-enz proposed indicators, which enable effective evaluation of human capital in the company. Their methodological approach distinguishes the main areas of the value of human capital, which are human capital efficiency, its value, the investment into human capital as well as the loss of human capital. For each of the areas, there are variables that can be measured and quantified [ 25 ].
They are presented in Figure 5. Indicators of efficiency of investment in human resources Source: [ 25 ]. Indicator sales per employee is the aggregate result of work of the department of human resources, which also affects the development of human capital in the company.
Human capital return on investment HCROI is an indicator of return on investment in human capital, including salary and compensation of employees for work, which represents another indicator or return on investment. Effectiveness of this procedure is based on the assumption that the value of employees to the enterprise is determined by wages paid to employees as an equivalent compensation for their work.
In addition to the salaries, investment in human capital also includes the costs of training and development activities. When considering indicators of investment effectiveness in human capital, there are five most commonly used indicators of personnel when the overall company is taken into consideration [ 26 ]:. Human economic value added HEVA —represents the share of one employee on creating economic value added. Human capital value added HCVA —it is similar to HEVA; employee share in added value, with the added value of creating revenue net of costs excluding the cost of employee benefits and labour costs.
Human capital market value HCMV —the market value of human capital gives personnel managers information on the amount of EUR net market value per one employee. Based on the research carried out on more than 10, companies, the most famous consultants PricewaterhouseCoopers and Saratoga recommend key indicators to measure the effectiveness of human capital. They are included in Table 1. At present, many changes and constantly increasing demands on human resources occur as a result of new technologies.
These dynamic changes perpetually encourage businesses to be more and more interested in the efficiency of investment in their employees. The objective of this work is to determine the effectiveness of investments in human resources, using statistical and econometric methods.
The analysis focuses on measurable economic indicators such as labour conditions, turnover, productivity, human capital value added HCVA , human capital return on investment HCROI and other measurable indicators. Evolution of the indicators was examined between and Nonmeasurable indicators of the contribution of investment in human resources were obtained by questionnaires. The research was done in a woodworking enterprise engaged in the Slovak Republic, which employs less than employees.
The aim was to identify similarities and differences in motivation factor for employees that significantly affect the satisfaction, motivation and performance of the employees, as well as the overall performance and potential development of the company as a whole. We contacted all the employees working in the selected company. A total of questionnaires were distributed. One hundred and forty-eight questionnaires were correctly filled out—which represents a return to the level of Detailed identification of respondents in terms of age, education level, job category and seniority is presented in Table 2.
From the analysis of the respondents, it can be seen that the age structure of the survey sample is diverse. That is a prerequisite of flexibility of human resources in the enterprise. Younger workers can bring new ideas, whereas older employees provide balance and knowledge based on years of experience. Completed education that prevailed among employees was secondary education. When concerning seniority, a group of employees who worked for 10 years or more prevailed.
This fact is a sign that the company is able to keep valuable employees and meet their needs. Among all respondents, the greatest number was represented by workers and middle management. However, we were also able to obtain preferences of top management individual work motivation and preferences.
The results of the research in selected company can be summarised in the following conclusions:. In the area of management strategy of human resources, the company has developed an effective education system for all levels of management from top management through middle management to the workers, with a priority focus on the customer. Training of employees is based on the concept of education and development of employees.
For each year, funding for education, time table, methods, individual training modules and the exact number of employees to be educated are provided. Employees are educated through external and internal forms. In terms of distance education, we mean intensive training of top employees.
This education is provided by external educational institutions. Internal training takes place within the company and is intended for middle management and workers. In the context of measurable indicators of efficiency of investment in human resources, we analysed the first indicator—wage conditions and business benefits for employees because rewarding of employees is part of the process of preserving and maintaining an effective workforce.
According to the relevant tariff class, employees gain tariff salary determined by the applicable tariff. There is the guarantee that employees are entitled to tariff-based payment, i. Except for wages, employees were entitled to a wide range of financial and nonfinancial benefits in terms of business benefits.
This advantage was connected with compulsory employment after finishing the school for a selected period of time. Although the average monthly wage compared to the average monthly wage in Slovakia is lower, which reduces the attractiveness of the selected enterprise for job seekers, employees are provided with a variety of benefits that motivate them to perform.
The value of the intellectual capital of the company is closely linked to the increasing or decreasing trends in the number of employees who come into the company and thus increase the value of the intellectual capital. Average monthly income is one indicator of the effectiveness of the investment to employees. Effectiveness indicator is based on the idea that the value of individual employees is determined by wages, i. The average monthly salary, presented in Table 3 , was during the monitored period developing in a variable rate.
Even though the average monthly salary was less than the average monthly wage in the Slovak Republic, its slight increase might be taken as a promising positive development for the future. Employee turnover was the third measurable indicator of efficiency of investment in human resources. In Table 4 , we examined the turnover of employees within the enterprise, which may not be viewed only as a negative phenomenon.
Sometimes, some low turnover rate may be even necessary, as it enables the company to maintain its potential for innovation and growth. Staff turnover rate in the period — decreased gradually. That indicates a positive development in staff turnover. For companies, it is important to identify the reasons for losing their workers and, therefore, it is of key importance to pay more attention to employees who are considering changing their jobs and to understand their unfulfilled needs and expectations.
On the other hand, reasons for the leaving of employees are often results of the decision of their employer. In the monitored period —, it was necessary to terminate the contracts of 20 employees. Another most common reason for leaving the company was inadequate salaries, as reported by workers. We recommend the company to identify the reasons for dissatisfaction of existing staff as well as the reasons for leaving of former employees.
That will enable the company to properly identify the reasons for departure and to implement changes in the system of rewarding and motivation of employees that will eventually prevent further loss of human capital. The results of the monthly labour productivity from sales and value added during the monitored period — are shown in Table 5.
The growth of labour productivity is important for the performance of the company because it leads to savings in expenditure of labour and labour costs. We recommend the company to focus on examining the relationship between labour productivity and the system of rewarding in the company, with special emphasis on the needs and particularities of human capital, because it is human capital in the company that is able to create value.
Human capital value added HCVA is another important indicator of economic efficiency of human resources in the company, which reflects the participation of employees in added value when the added value is created by revenue net of costs excluding labour costs—labour costs and employee benefits.
It is presented in Table 6. Human capital value added HCVA belongs among the indicators of the overall efficiency of utilisation of human resources. Thus, based on the research results, we may conclude that the analysed company uses its human resources effectively.
It is generally understood that via the abilities, skills and knowledge of its employees, the company can strengthen its competitiveness in the market. Quality technology available does not secure maximum performance because it is the employees who create added value in the company as bearers of human capital, and without employees, no technical achievements could be properly utilised. This sum included trainings for middle managers and individual workers.
The overall costs per training module were divided by the total number of participants in various target groups. Resources for internal training were divided into five training modules. These five modules are presented in Table 7. After identifying the range of training modules and the number of participating employees, average investment in training and staff development were analysed.
On the basis of research done, we can state that the company has an elaborate system of quality education. Moreover, the company seeks to continuously improve this system and spends quite a considerable sum of money on education of their employees. The results considering this indicator are presented in Table 8.
During the monitored period, the development indicator HCROI was slightly decreasing due to higher labour costs labour costs and employee benefits , which has caused an increase in the total number of employees. That means that the investments were profitable and returned. We can conclude that during the monitored period, funds invested in human resources of the company were effectively recovered. This is mainly because such monitoring answers questions such as how much profit the enterprise will have much consumption cost, how many people are employed, how much to invest in labour costs wages and benefits and especially how it can improve the individual variables in order to increase their competitiveness in the market.
HCROI allows to increase the performance of the company, as the company expects that the investments in their employees shall be returned in the form of a specific return, even though long-term nature of payback of investments into human capital should also be taken into consideration.
It is important to note that not all of the benefits of investing in human resources are measurable in financial terms. There are also nonfinancial, i. In addition to financial indicators of the efficiency of utilisation of human resources, the analysed company should take into account also noneconomic indicators such as the level of employee satisfaction with company benefits, with the process learning, and their level of motivation.
These aspects can encourage people to perform better and are usually determiners intensifying the interest of potential job seekers. Within quantification nonmeasurable indicators of efficiency of investment in human resources in , we conducted questionnaire research on a sample of employees of the company.
Table 9 shows the list of those labour and motivation factors identified by employees as the most significant, thus increasing their working efficiency most effectively. Based on the preferences of the respondents, we have compiled a rank of 10 motivation factors that were the most preferred by top and middle management and by workers. Comparison of these two groups was conducted to determine whether, based on the similarity of the responses among various employees, an identical composition of motivation factors could be identified.
This finding will enable the company to consider the amount of investment in various areas related to increasing the effectiveness of human resources. Employees working in top and middle management considered base salary to be the most important motivating factor.
They give priority financial security. Work-related motivation factors connected with workload, financial evaluation and social factors influencing the situation and conditions in the workplace occupied lower positions in questionnaires. Although the employees working in top and middle management considered social relationships to be important, they considered them secondary to existential and financial factors.
The reason could be that, in the working positions of top and middle management, employees do not tend to build close relations and put more emphasis on themselves and their own careers. On the other hand, workers attributed the greatest level of importance of interpersonal relations, good teamwork, atmosphere and communication in the workplace. The reason could be that employees work in teams, know each other and are used to each other. Workers thus tend more to coherence and values other than just the financial factors and career development.
For them, friendly working relationships are the most important. Financial rewarding and job security were secondary to working relations, perhaps because of the unstable economic situation in the Slovak economy. Surprisingly, training and development was not rated among the most important motivators in none of the observed groups. Employees are probably interested in expanding their knowledge and expertise, and further education is considered a priority.
They prefer other mentioned factors to motivate them. On the other hand, within the two groups that were compared, there were the same 10 motivation factors that more or less affected the satisfaction, motivation and performance of the human resources of the company. Based on the results acquired, we recommend the company, as a part of their overall strategy of investments into human resources, to focus on these motivation factors that enable higher and more effective contribution from investments in human capital.
Quality system of corporate benefits, declining employee turnover and the positive developments in the measurable indicators of efficiency of investment in human capital are the strengths of the investment process. All these proved that the analysed company invests in their human resources effectively.
Weaknesses of investment in human resources in the analysed company lied in lower average wages of employees compared to the average wage in Slovakia, which can significantly influence the discontent and limited performance of employees. Investments in intracompany education and development appear to be at a relatively high level, but it is necessary to review the division of analysed groups to top management and other trainings volume of sources per employee and the effectiveness of their usage.
On the other hand, the enterprise has a long and elaborate system of education that is constantly trying to improve it. If the analysed company would focus on business issues that are most important to employees, such as the basic salary and the level of interpersonal relationships, they would provide employees with better working conditions and care.
The company has also an opportunity to improve performance of its human resources, which will ultimately provide benefits to the company in the form of greater efficiency and competitiveness. Source: [own data processing [ 28 ]]. Managers make daily permanent decisions to develop an effective strategy that will help them to succeed in a highly competitive environment [ 32 , 33 ].
It is more and more true that in order to succeed, companies should provide and keep quality human resources [ 34 ]. It is generally understood that times when tangible assets were the most important assets of a business are long gone. Therefore, many businesses now focus on the knowledge and skills of their employees and the company as a whole, and these often become a source of their competitive advantage.
Human capital plays a crucial role in increasing the productivity and output of an organisation [ 35 ]. It is involved in the creation of the market value of the company and also represents the most valuable source of company [ 36 , 37 ]. This analysis of selected company proved the effectiveness of investment in human resources through the use of measurable and immeasurable indicators of efficiency of investment in human resources.
The money can be invested into three-, six-, nine- and month CDs. A midcareer worker who needs to pay for a child's college tuition can ladder savings into CDs that will mature as the tuition payments are due, Garrison says. And a retired person can ladder CDs over longer terms, such as six months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, in order to have a healthy cash cushion, she says. If a CD ladder seems like a smart strategy for your money, it's easy to create.
Determine how much money you can invest in CDs and how frequently you want access to part of your money, such as every year or every few months. You can buy CDs in increments of six months, or you might buy CDs in one-year increments.
While purchasing CDs in longer increments one-year, two-year, three-year and so on has traditionally paid better interest rates, that's not the case in the current market. By purchasing CDs in shorter maturity time frames, you'll have money frequently coming due, and you will be able to reinvest more quickly into higher-interest CDs when rates do go up, Anderson says.
These days, CD investors are hardly being rewarded for locking into longer-term CDs. Because interest rates are currently so low, most advisers recommend purchasing shorter-term CDs, with the longest term of your ladder only one or two years.